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INGREDIENTS

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    Alfalfa Meal

    Alfalfa is a nutrient-rich legume from the pea family carrying plenty of calcium and other minerals, carotene, chlorophyll, protein, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K. Alfalfa meal is finely ground dried alfalfa.

    Almond Meal

    Almond meal is dried, ground almonds, which are protein rich nuts.

    Apple

    Apples are fruits. They add flavor, dietary fiber, and potassium.

    Bananas

    Bananas are a fruit and they are used to add flavor, potassium, fiber, magnesium, Vitamin B6 and Vitamin C.

    Banana Puree

    Bananas are fruit. They add flavor and potassium.

    BEEF

    Beef is the striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac) from a cow, it is an excellent source of high-quality animal-based protein and essential amino acids.

    BEEF BROTH

    Beef broth is obtained by cooking beef bones, parts and muscle tissue with water to create a nutrient rich broth. It adds flavor and moisture to the food.

    BEEF LIVER

    Beef liver is a nutrient-rich organ, which is a great source of protein and flavor. Beef liver is an important source of Vitamins A and D.

    BEEF MEAL

    Beef meal is the rendered product from cattle tissues --exclusive of any added blood, hair, hoof, horn, hide trimmings, stomach and rumen contents-- that has been cooked and ground, reducing the fat content to create a protein-rich ingredient. It’s high in protein and amino acids to help strengthen and maintain your pet’s muscles.

    BIOTIN

    Biotin, or Vitamin B7, is an essential water-soluble vitamin important for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Biotin is synthesized by bacteria in the large intestine.

    BISON

    Bison is the muscle meat of the American bison, which is a high quality, animal-based protein source.

    BLUEBERRIES

    Blueberries are fruits. They provide Vitamin C and dietary fiber.

    BROCCOLI

    Broccoli is a cruciferous plant rich in fiber and protein, iron, potassium, calcium, selenium and magnesium, as well as in vitamins A, C, E, K and B.

    CABBAGE

    Cabbage is a cruciferous vegetable, and an excellent source of vitamin K, vitamin C and dietary fiber. Cabbage is a rich source of anti-cancer phytonutrients and may help with detoxification.

    Calcium Carbonate

    Calcium Carbonate is is a nutritionally available source of calcium. Calcium is important for the formation and structure of bones and teeth. It is also integral to cardiac function, nerve transmission, muscle movement and several enzyme systems.

    Calcium iodate

    Calcium iodate is a good source of calcium and iodine. Both are essential nutrients: calcium is needed for strong bones and teeth, and iodine is needed for proper thyroid function, which regulates growth, development and metabolic rate.

    Cane molasses

    Cane molasses is a viscous, dark and sugar-rich by-product of sugar extraction from the sugarcane. It is used as an energy source and as a binder.

    Canola oil

    Canola oil is obtained from rapeseeds. Rich in omega-6 fatty acids, it helps give your pet healthy skin and a soft, shiny coat.

    CARROTS

    Carrots are a root vegetable, and an excellent source of carotenoids, that help support the immune system and aid in digestion. They are also a good source of vitamin K and vitamin B6.

    Chamomile

    Chamomile is an annual herb that has sedative, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxant properties.

    CHIA SEEDS

    Chia seeds are obtained from the Salvia Hispanica herb, and are rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

    CHICKEN

    Chicken is an animal-based, high quality protein source; an excellent source of highly digestible, lean protein, and essential amino acids.

    Chicken bone broth

    Chicken bone broth is obtained from cooking poultry bones, parts and/or muscle tissue with water. Chicken bone broth adds natural flavors and moisture.

    CHICKEN BROTH

    Chicken broth is obtained from cooking chicken bones and/or muscle tissue with water. Chicken broth adds natural flavors and moisture.

    CHICKEN FAT

    Chicken fat is obtained from the tissues of chickens in the commercial process of rendering or extracting. Chicken fat is the highest of all animal sources in linoleic acid (over 23%), an important element for skin and coat health. To maintain freshness, the chicken fat is preserved with mixed tocopherols, a natural form of vitamin E.

    CHICKEN LIVER

    Chicken liver is a nutrient-rich organ meat, and a good source of lean protein, Vitamin A, iron and essential amino acids.

    CHICKEN MEAL

    Chicken meal is the dry rendered product from chicken flesh and skin --excluding head, feet, organs, and feathers-- resulting in a concentrated source of protein plus calcium and phosphorus.

    Choline Chloride

    Choline Chloride is a dietary source of Choline, included in the B-complex vitamins. Choline is necessary for nerve function and fat metabolism. Provide the answer to the question here.

    Citric Acid

    Citric Acid is naturally found in citrus fruits, that has antioxidant properties. It is used as a preservative.

    Coconut glycerin

    Coconut glycerin is a sugar alcohol derived from coconut oil, used for binding and texture, as well as a natural preservative.

    COCONUT OIL

    Coconut oil is obtained from the kernel or meat of the coconuts. It is a rich source of fat, particularly medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), that help improve brain energy metabolism.

    COD

    Cod is a low fat, flaky, white meat, ocean fish that is a good source of protein, phosphorus, niacin, Vitamin B-12, and rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

    Copper Amino Acid Chelate

    Copper Amino Acid Chelate is a source of copper, an essential trace mineral. This copper is specially bonded (chelated) with amino acids to enhance absorption and assimilation of iron and boost red blood cell formation; promotes the formation of bones, connective tissue, collagen and myelin (the protective covering of nerves); and assists in the formation of melanin and of several enzymes involved in respiration.

    Copper Amino Acid complex

    Copper Amino Acid complex is a source of copper, an essential trace mineral. Copper helps absorb iron and boost red blood cell formation; promotes the formation of bones, connective tissue, collagen and myelin (the protective covering of nerves); and assists in the formation of melanin and of several enzymes involved in respiration.

    Copper Proteinate

    Copper Proteinate is a source of copper, an essential trace mineral. Copper helps the body absorb iron and boost red blood cell formation; promotes the formation of bones, connective tissue, collagen and myelin (the protective covering of nerves); and assists in the formation of melanin and of several enzymes involved in respiration.

    Copper sulfate

    Copper sulfate is a bioavailable source of copper, an essential trace mineral. Copper helps the body absorb iron and boost red blood cell formation; promotes the formation of bones, connective tissue, collagen and myelin (the protective covering of nerves); and assists in the formation of melanin and of several enzymes involved in respiration.

    Cranberries

    Cranberries are fruits that have moderate amounts of Vitamin C and manganese, and are a natural source of tannins (astringents found in plants) that prevent harmful bacteria from thriving in the urinary tract.

    Cranberry powder

    Cranberry powder are ground dried cranberries. It is a good source of antioxidants and a natural source of tannins (that may support urinary tract health).

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      Dandelion greens

      Dandelion greens are a high-fiber, leafy-green plant that contain high amounts of vitamins A, C, and K. It is a natural prebiotic, which help support a healthy digestive system

      D-calcium pantothenate

      D-calcium pantothenate is a form of vitamin B5, used in energy metabolism. This vitamin aids in It also aids in the utilization of other vitamins and helps support wound healing and antibody formation.

      DL-Methionine

      DL-Methionine is the synthetic version of Methionine, an essential amino acid -- found in meat, fish and daiy products. Dietary methionine is important for liver repair, and helps prevent skin and nail problems.

      Dried Aspergillus Niger Fermentation product

      Dried Aspergillus Niger Fermentation product is a probiotic, that may improve the balance of the intestinal microflora in the intestinal tract, supporting the absorption of nutrients and contributing to a healthy immune response.

      Dried Aspergillus Oryzae fermentation product

      Dried Aspergillus Oryzae fermentation product is a probiotic, that may improve the balance of the intestinal microflora in the intestinal tract, supporting the absorption of nutrients and contributing to a healthy immune response.

      Dried Bacillus Coagulans Fermentation product

      Dried Bacillus Coagulans Fermentation product is a probiotic, that may improve the balance of the intestinal microflora in the intestinal tract, supporting the absorption of nutrients and contributing to a healthy immune response.

      Dried Bifidobacterium animalis fermentation product

      Dried Bifidobacterium animalis fermentation product is a probiotic, that may improve the balance of the intestinal microflora in the intestinal tract, supporting the absorption of nutrients and contributing to a healthy immune response. Provide the answer to the question here.

      Dried blueberries

      Dried blueberries are a fruit rich in antioxidants, fiber and vitamins C and K.

      Dried carrots

      Dried carrots are carrots from which the water has been removed. Dried carrots are a great source of carbohydrates, fiber, and beta-carotene. (See Carrot)

      Dried Chicory root

      Dried Chicory root is the dried, roasted and ground root of the chicory plant. Chicory root is used as a source of prebiotic (to promote a healthy digestive track) and it is a good source of inulin.

      Dried cranberries

      Dried cranberries are cranberries from which the water has been removed. A great source of antioxidants, their natural acidic properties that may support urinary tract health. Cranberries are rich in flavenoids.

      Dried egg product

      Dried egg product is the product obtained from eggs, free of shells, that is dehydrated, handled as liquid or frozen. Its an excellent source of protein (providing all the essential amino acids for growth and muscle development), vitamins and fatty acids (that promote a healthy skin and coat).

      Dried egg whites

      Dried egg whites is the albumen of the eggs that have been separated from the yolk and shell, and dried. They provide an excellent complete source of protein, containing all essential amino acids and fatty acids.

      Dried enterococcus faecium fermentation product

      Dried enterococcus faecium fermentation product is a probiotic, that may improve the balance of the intestinal microflora in the intestinal tract, supporting the absorption of nutrients and contributing to a healthy immune response.

      Dried garbanzo beans are garbanzos

      Dried garbanzo beans are garbanzos that have been dehydrated. Chickpea or garbanzo bean is a nutrient-rich legume, high in protein, lecithin and potassium. They provide magnesium, copper and folate as well.

      Dried kelp

      Dried kelp is dried seaweed, a good source of essential trace mineral iodine (I), potassium (K) and salt (NaCl).

      Dried Lactobacillus Acidophilus Fermentation Product

      Dried Lactobacillus Acidophilus Fermentation Product is a probiotic, that may improve the balance of the intestinal microflora in the intestinal tract, supporting the absorption of nutrients and contributing to a healthy immune response.

      Dried Lactobacillus casei fermentation product

      Dried Lactobacillus casei fermentation product is a probiotic, that may improve the balance of the intestinal microflora in the intestinal tract, supporting the absorption of nutrients and contributing to a healthy immune response.

      Dried Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product

      Dried Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product is a probiotic, that may improve the balance of the intestinal microflora in the intestinal tract, supporting the absorption of nutrients and contributing to a healthy immune response.

      Dried Lactobacillus reuteri fermentation product

      Dried Lactobacillus reuteri fermentation product is a probiotic, that may improve the balance of the intestinal microflora in the intestinal tract, supporting the absorption of nutrients and contributing to a healthy immune response.

      dried lentils

      Lentils are legumes, with a high content of protein and a rich source of numerous essential nutrients --including folate, thiamin, vitamin B6, phosphorus, iron, and zinc, among others.

      Dried peas

      Dried peas are are obtained by drying the peapods and removing the skin. Peas are a good source of protein, vitamin B and fiber.

      Dried beet pulp

      Dried beet pulp is the dried fiber left over after the sugar is extracted from sugar beets. Dried beet pulp is a souce of fiber and prebiotics.

      Dried Pumpkin

      Pumpkin is part of the squash family. It is an excellent source of beta-carotene and vitamin A, and a good source of beneficial fiber.

      Dried Sweet Potatoes

      Sweet potatoes are a source of complex carbohydrate, both starches and soluble dietary fiber. Sweet potatoes are an excellent source of antioxidants such as beta carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E, as well as potassium, calcium, iron and other vitamins and minerals.

      Dried Tomato pomace

      Tomato pomace is the mixture of tomato skins, pulp, and crushed seeds that remains after the juicing process. Tomato pomace is a rich source of fiber, iron, and lycopene.

      Dry Cultured skim milk

      Cultured skim milk is the food produced by culturing skim milk with microbial organisms. It is a good source of calcium, phosphorous, riboflavin-vitamin B2 and iodine.

      Duck

      Duck is a high quality animal-based protein source. It is naturally rich in iron and amino acids, which helps support strong muscles. It’s also rich in fat for a high-quality source of energy

      Duck broth

      Duck broth is obtained from cooking duck bones and/or muscle tissue with water. Duck broth adds natural flavors and moisture.

      Egg

      Egg is n excellent source of protein (providing all the essential amino acids for growth and muscle development), vitamins and fatty acids (that promote a healthy skin and coat).

      Ferrous fumarate

      Ferrous fumarate is a type of iron --an important component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the organs, and myoglobin, that transports and stores oxygen in muscle cells.

      Ferrous Sulfate

      Ferrous Sulfate is a bioavailable source of iron. Iron is an essential trace mineral, an important component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the organs, and myoglobin, that transports and stores oxygen in muscle cells.

      Fish oil

      Fish oil is a fatty oil derived from the tissues of various fish (such as menhaden or sardines), it is rich in Omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) that help reduce inflammation, maintain a heathy skin and shiny coat, as well as with brain development.

      Flaxseed meal

      Flaxseed meal is ground flaxseed, obtained by grinding the flaxseed. It is a rich source of protein, dietary fiber and the Omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA).

      Flaxseed oil

      Flaxseed oil is obtained from the seeds of the flax plant. Flaxseed oil is a high-quality source of essential fatty acids (particularly Omega-3’s) and other essential nutrients. Essential fatty acids are vital for the health of skin, coat, cardiovascular, immune, reproduction, and nervous system. When in the proper ratio with Omega-6 fatty acids, Omega-3 fatty acids may help to regulate and control inflammatory reactions.

      Flaxseed

      Flaxseed is a rich source of dietary fiber and the Omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA) that aids in digestion and promotes healthy skin and coat.

      Folic Acid

      Folic Acid is the synthetic form of Vitamin B9, that helps supports cellular growth. Deficiency of folic acid in the diet leads to decreased cellular growth.

      Fructooligosaccharide

      Fructooligosaccharide are are a form of carbohydrate naturally occuring in plants, used as an alternative sweetener.

      G-I

        garbanzo beans / chickpea

        Chickpea or garbanzo bean is a nutrient-rich legume, high in protein, lecithin and potassium. They are an excelent source of fiber, magnesium, copper and folate as well.

        Garlic

        Garlic is a strong-smelling and tasting bulb, used as flavoring. It is also a natural antioxidant.

        Ginger / ginger root

        Ginger or ginger root, is widely used as a spice and encourages digestive health.

        Glucosamine hydrochloride

        Glucosamine hydrochloride is one of several forms of glucosamine --sugar protein that helps the body build cartilage.

        Glycerin

        Glycerin is a sugar alcohol, obtained by the saponification of tallow (beef or mutton fat) used for binding and texture, as well as a natural preservative.

        Green tea extract

        Green tea extract is obtained from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. It contains flavonoids and polyphenols, which are antioxidants.

        ground cloves

        Cloves are dried flower buds, used to add an aromatic taste to the dog treat.

        Ground flaxseed

        Ground flaxseed is the product obtained by grinding the flaxseed. It is a rich source of protein, dietary fiber and the Omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA).

        Ground Miscanthus grass

        Miscanthus grass is an excellent source of fiber, essential for a healthy digestive tract. It complements other fibers in the food to achieve prebiotics in the gut. It may help address obesity in cats and dogs.

        Ground Sorghum

        Sorghum is a cereal grass, high in antioxidants. It is good source of dietary fiber, rich in B1, niacin, iron, zinc, and B2. It also has protein and a low glycemic index, that can help regulate blood sugar.

        Guar gum

        Guar gum is a soluble dietary fiber, from the guar beans, that has thickening and stabilizing properties. It is used to thicken gravies and sauces.

        Inulin

        Inulins are a group of naturally occurring starches produced by many types of plants, most often extracted from chicory.

        Iron Amino Acid Chelate

        Iron Amino Acid Chelate is a source of trace mineral Iron -- an important component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the organs, and myoglobin, that transports and stores oxygen in muscle cells. The bonding (chelation) with amino acids enhances the absorption of the iron.

        Iron amino acid complex

        Iron amino acid complex is a source of trace mineral Iron -- an important component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the organs, and myoglobin, that transports and stores oxygen in muscle cells.

        Iron Proteinate

        Iron Proteinate is a source of trace mineral iron --an important component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the organs, and myoglobin, that transports and stores oxygen in muscle cells.

        J-L

          Lactic acid

          Lactic acid is an organic acid, obtained by fermentation of carbohydrates. It is used as a flavoring agent.

          Lamb

          Lamb is the muscle meat from a sheep (typically less than 12 months old). It is a high quality animal-based protein source providing many essential amino acids (including high levels of zinc) for stamina, skin, and heart health.

          Lamb liver

          Lamb liver is a nutrient-rich organ meat, and a good source of protein, Vitamin A, vitamin B, niacin, magnesium and phosphorus.

          L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (source of Vitamin C)

          L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate is a dietary vitamin C source, an antioxidant that helps support a healthy immune system.

          Lavender

          Lavender is a small aromatic evergreen shrub of the mint family, with narrow leaves and bluish-purple flowers. Lavender may might help alleviate anxiety, and stress.

          L-carnitine

          L-carnitine is the synthetic version of Carnitine, an amino acid that is produced in the body. L-carnitine helps the body turn fat into energy, promoting a healthy weight in your pet.

          L-threonine

          L-threonine is the synthetic version of Threonine, an essential amino acid for dogs and cats, that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

          M-O

            Magnesium sulfate

            Magnesium sulfate is a source of magnesium essential for energy and healthy maintenance of bones, teeth, arteries, heart and nerves.

            Manganese amino acid chelate

            Manganese amino acid chelate is a source of trace mineral manganese. Manganese is specially bonded (chelated) with amino acids to enhance absorption and assimilation. Manganese is also a key component of several cell enzymes that catalyze metabolic reactions and help the body use vitamin E and B1. Manganese is necessary for normal bone development and reproduction. Foods that are good sources of manganese include legumes and whole-grain cereals.

            Manganese amino acid complex

            Manganese amino acid complex is a source of trace mineral manganese --that is necessary for proper bone formation, growth and reproduction.

            Manganese Proteinate

            Manganese Proteinate is a source of trace mineral Manganese --that is necessary for proper nervous system function, bone formation, growth and reproduction.

            Manganese sulfate

            Manganese is a trace mineral critical for brain and nervous system function.

            Manganous oxide

            Manganous oxide is a bioavailable source of the essential trace mineral manganese --that is necessary for proper nervous system function, bone formation, growth and reproduction.

            Menadione Sodium Bisulfate

            Menadione Sodium Bisulfate is a synthetic version of vitamin K -- group of fat-soluble vitamins key in blood clotting, bone metabolism, and regulating blood calcium levels

            Menadione Sodium Bisulfite

            Menadione Sodium Bisulfite is a synthetic version of vitamin K -- group of fat-soluble vitamins key in blood clotting, bone metabolism, and regulating blood calcium levels

            Menhaden Fish meal

            Menhaden Fish meal is the clean, dried, ground tissue of whole menhaden or menhaden cuttings. Menhaden are cold water, free ranging fish, an excellent source of protein, essential amino acids, and Omega 3 fatty acids.

            Millet

            Millet is a fast-growing cereal plant, that is high in insoluble fiber and a good source of the minerals copper, phosphorus, manganese and magnesium.

            Mixed tocopherols

            Mixed tocopherols is a blend of tocopherols compounds (different forms if vitamin E) that act as natural preservatives to protect products from oxidative randcidity.

            Monosodium phosphate

            Monosodium phosphate is a highly bioavailable source of phosphorus (inorganic compound of sodium and phosphorus)

            Montmorillonite clay

            Montmorillonite clay is a natural source of minerals, such as calcium, iron, copper, and zinc, it might boost good bacteria in the gut. Provide the answer to the question here.

            Natural flavor

            Natural flavors are obtained from dextrose and glycine to enhance the taste of the food.

            Natural pork flavor

            Natural pork flavor includes ingredients such as spices, pork broth and yeast. Used as a taste enhancer.

            Natural smoke flavor

            Natural smoke flavor is made by condensing the smoke from wood and it's used for flavoring.

            Niacin supplement

            Niacin supplement is a source of vitamin B3 niacin, essential for energy metabolism. It aids in the breakdown of carbohydrates, protein and fats, in the formation of red blood cells and in the detoxification of chemicals. It is an essential vitamin for a healthy nervous system and brain function.

            Oatmeal

            Oatmeal is a type of coarse flour made of milled oats. Oats are natural grains that offer a healthy source of energy for your pet.

            P-R

              Passion flower

              Passion flower is a climbing vine. The passion flower can help alleviate anxiety.

              Peas are legumes

              Peas are legumes, with a high content of fiber (to help with the digestive system), protein, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and lutein.

              Pea fiber

              Pea fiber is the outer structure of the pea, it's an excellent source of dietary fiber.

              Pea flour

              Pea flour is the soft, finely ground meal obtained from the milling of peas that have been roasted. The roasting enables greater access to protein and starch, increasing the nutritive value.

              Pea protein

              Pea protein is obtained by grinding dried yellow peas into a fine powder, removing the starch and fiber, and leaving a powdered concentrated protein substance, which is rich with amino acids.

              Pea starch

              Pea starch is a rich source of amylose making it a great substitute for grain-based starches. It is also a highly digestible carbohydrate alternative that provides a heathy source of energy.

              Peppermint oil

              Peppermint oil is the essential oil obtained from the flowers and leaves of the peppermint plane. It help soothe your pet's upset stomach, and promote a fresh breath.

              Pork gelatin

              Pork gelatin is a water-soluble protein collagen extracted from the skin, bones, and connective tissues of pork.

              Potassium chloride

              Potassium chloride is a salt that supplies the correct ratio of potassium and chloride, critical to cell membrane function and permeability.

              Potassium iodide

              Potassium iodide is a bioavailable source of iodine --needed for proper thyroid function, which regulates growth, development and metabolic rate.

              Powdered cellulose

              Powdered cellulose is obtained from fiber rich plants, making it a good source of supplemental dietary fiber and prebiotic

              Pumpkin

              Pumpkin is part of the squash family; it is an excellent source of beta-carotene and vitamin A, and a good source of beneficial fiber.

              Pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6)

              Pyridoxyne hydrochloride is source of the the vitamin pyridoxine (B6), which is used to support proper metabolism of protein. It’s a key component in helping build protein structures like muscles, hair, nails, enzymes, and growth hormones.

              Quinoa

              Quinoa is an annual plant whose edible seeds are rich in protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals

              Rabbit

              Rabbit is a high quality animal-based protein source providing many essential amino acids.

              Riboflavin supplement

              Riboflavin supplement is a source of the B vitamin, riboflavin (B2), which is key in enzyme metabolism --release of energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat in food.

              Rosemary extract

              Rosemary extract is derived from rosemary, is a plant-based aromatic flavor and an antioxidant.

              S-U

                Safflower oil

                Safflower oil is an edible oil obtained from the seeds of the safflower. It's a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, including monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.

                Salmon

                Salmon is an oily fish, making it a tasteful source of protein. Salmon is also rich in Omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA), and high in vitamin D content.

                Salmon meal

                Salmon meal is the clean, dried, ground tissue of the whole salmon or salmon fish cuttings. This meal provides an excellent source of amino acids and Omega-3 fatty acids.

                Salt

                Salt, also known as sodium chloride, provides the two essentials macrominerals sodium and chloride. It's essential in maintaining the cellular environment, preventing cells from dehydrating and swelling. It also maintains nerve and muscle cell function.

                Sodium carbonate

                Sodium carbonate is a form of sodium.

                Sodium phosphate

                Sodium phosphate is a source of the essential macrominerals sodium and phosphorus in a calcium free form.

                Sodium selenite

                Sodium selenite is a source of the essential trace mineral selenium -- an antioxidant and necessary for the normal functioning of the immune system and thyroid gland.

                Spinach

                Spinach is a leafy-green plant, rich in vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, magnesium, manganese, iron and folate. Spinach is a good source of the B vitamins riboflavin and vitamin B6, vitamin E, calcium, potassium, and dietary fiber.

                suncured alfalfa meal

                Alfalfa meal is the aerial portion of the alfalfa plant, which has been cut and dried naturally in the sun, and then finely ground into a meal. It is a good source of protein, vitamin C, folate, vitamin K, niacin and pantothenic acid, calcium and iron.

                Sunflower oil

                Sunflower oil is obtained from the seeds of sunflower. It is low in saturated fat, and high in the essential Omega 6 fatty acid linoleic acid. Sunflower oil is rich in the natural anti-oxidant vitamin E.

                sweet potato

                The sweet potato is a starchy, sweet tasting, nutrient rich root vegetable. Sweet potatoes are an excellent source of antioxidants such as beta carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E, as well as potassium, calcium, iron and other vitamins and minerals. Sweet potatoes are a good source of natural dietary fiber, and add a sweet taste to the food.

                Tapioca starch

                Tapioca starch is an easily digestible starch obtained from the roots of the cassava plant. It is an option for grain-free products.

                Taurine

                Taurine is an essential amino acid for cats (and some breeds of dogs). It is critical for normal vision, digestion, heart muscle function, to maintain normal pregnancy and fetal development, and to maintain a healthy immune system. It also contributes to a cat and dog’s heart health and healthy digestion. It is found in animal-based ingredients rather than plant-based ingredients.

                Thiamine mononitrate

                Thiamine mononitrate is a source of vitamin thiamine, also known as B1. This essential vitamin is needed in energy and carbohydrate metabolism and for nervous system functions.

                Tricalcium phosphate

                Tricalcium phosphate is a source of the essential macro-minerals calcium and phosphorous.

                Trout

                Trout is an oily fish, making it a tasteful source of high quality, easily digestible protein, and essential amino acids. Trout has a high content of vitamin D, and vitamin B12, and it’s also naturally rich in Omega 3 fatty acids.

                Tuna

                Tuna is a saltwater fish, that is an excellent source of protein. Tuna is rich in Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids.

                Turkey

                Turkey is an excellent source of highly digestible, lean high-quality animal-based protein and essential amino acids.

                Turkey broth

                Turkey broth is obtained from cooking turkey bones and/or muscle tissue with water. Turkey broth adds natural flavors and moisture.

                Turkey liver

                Turkey liver is a nutrient-rich organ meat, and is a good source of lean protein, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, iron and essential amino acids.

                Turkey meal

                Turkey meal is the dry rendered product from turkey flesh and skin --excluding head, feet, organs, and feathers-- resulting in a concentrated source of protein plus calcium and phosphorus.

                turmeric / turmeric powder

                Turmeric is a perennial herb of the ginger family. The dried, and ground root of the turmeric plant is used as flavoring, and helps with digestion.

                V-Z

                  Vegetable glycerin

                  Vegetable glycerin is a sugar alcohol derived from the oils of plants, used for binding and texture, as well as a natural preservative.

                  Venison

                  Venison is the muscle tissue from farmed deer. Venison is an excellent source of protein, with many essential nutrients (including high levels of iron and amino acids).

                  vitamin A palmitate supplement

                  Vitamin A palmitate is a bioavailable source of Vitamin A that can be easily absorbed into the body. Vitamin A is important for growth and development, maintenance of all mucous membranes, the immune system and vision. It also supports respiratory functions, the digestive tract, the urinary tract, the reproductive tract and the skin.

                  Vitamin A supplement

                  Vitamin A supplement is a source of vitamin A, important for growth and development, maintenance of all mucous membranes, the immune system and vision. It also supports respiratory functions, the digestive tract, the urinary tract, the reproductive tract and the skin. Conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A is limited to non-existent in pets, so this supplementation is vital.

                  Vitamin B12 supplement

                  Vitamin B12 supplement is a source of vitamin B12, or cobalamin, which is important in cell growth, protein synthesis, metabolism of fat and carbohydrates, and formation of red cells.

                  Vitamin D3 supplement

                  Vitamin D3 supplement is the source of the fat souble vitamin D --necessary to stimulate the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It aids in the formation of normal bones and teeth, and maintenance of a healthy nerve and muscle system by regulating the level of calcium in the blood.

                  Vitamin E supplement

                  Vitamin E supplement is a source of the fat soluble vitamin E, also known as alpha-tocopherol. It is an antioxidant, that protects fat and Vitamin A from being destructed by free radicals. Vitamin E is essential for the integrity and optimum function of the reproductive, muscular, circulatory, nervous, and immune systems.

                  Whitefish

                  Whitefish is the meat from a variety of fish that live on or near the seafloor --like cod, grouper, halibut and pollock. Whitefish contain oils only in their liver, making them a mild tasting fish. They are an excelent source of protein and omega 3.

                  Yellow split peas

                  Yellow split peas are legumes that provide plant-based protein, with a high content of fiber (to help with the digestive system), vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and lutein.

                  Yucca schidigera extract

                  Yucca schidigera extract derives from the mojave yucca plant. It is known to reduce fecal odor.

                  Zinc Amino Acid Chelate

                  Zinc Amino Acid Chelate is a source of zinc, an essential trace mineral. Zinc is especially important in skin function and wound healing. It helps with protein and carbohydrate metabolism and supports a healthy liver. And is critical in the structure and function of cell membranes, supporting a healthy immune system.

                  Zinc amino acid complex

                  Zinc amino acid complex is a source of zinc, an essential trace mineral. Zinc is critical to enzyme function for many of the body’s major metabolic pathways. For example, it affects the development of cartilage, blood, bone, keratin, and mammary glands. Wound healing and oxygen transfer also rely on zinc.

                  Zinc oxide

                  Zinc oxide is source of zinc, an essential mineral. Zinc is especially important in skin function and wound healing. It helps with protein and carbohydrate metabolism and supports a healthy liver. And is critical in the structure and function of cell membranes, supporting a healthy immune system.

                  Zinc propionate

                  Zinc propionate is source of zinc, an essential trace mineral. Zinc is especially important in skin function and wound healing. It helps with protein and carbohydrate metabolism and supports a healthy liver. And is critical in the structure and function of cell membranes, supporting a healthy immune system.

                  Marius